Pediatric Orthopedics is the treatment of muscles, joints, and growing bones.
The different techniques undertaken are physical therapy, braces and splints, and observation of growth.
Conditions like injuries, scoliosis, congenital deformities, and neurological disorders.
The surgeon treats the musculoskeletal problems in both adolescents and children.
Pediatric Bone and Joint Care
The procedure of development and growth-related conditions in children can be disturbed by the different problems like neurological disorders, injuries, bone infections, and birth malformations.
These conditions can hamper the growth of the children in the long run.
For this, Pediatric surgery plays an important role in improving the function of musculoskeletal in many childhood disorders.
Pediatric Orthopedic Conditions
- Condition of spinal problem
- Several limb deformities like a torsional problem, knock knee problem, flat feet, and bowlegs
- Traumatic injuries
- Condition of burn contractures
- Infections of bones and joint problems
- Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Disorders related to postures (computer-related and back pain injuries)
- Neuromuscular disorders
- Injuries related to sports activities
- Condition of Congenital malformations such as congenital vertical talus, club foot, DDH, and more.
Congenital and Hereditary Pediatric Conditions
Congenital Limb Defects
In this condition, a part or the whole lower or upper limb cannot form normally or is not at all forming when the baby is growing in the uterus.
Club foot (talipes equinovarus) is a condition of foot deformity that is present at the time of birth.
Muscles, blood vessel, bones, feet, and tendons are affected by this condition.
The appearance of the foot is generally broad and short, and the heel is pointing downward.
The forefoot turns in the inward position.
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
It is a serious condition present at the time of birth (congenital condition) of the hip joint.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is a serious condition that is caused due to inherited (genetic) disorder where the bones break very easily.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
This is the condition of inherited (genetic) disorder of the muscles that makes them weak and are easily restored with fatty deposits.
It is a known fact that the spine has some curves that are considered normal.
In Scoliosis condition, there is a lateral curvature of the spine that is in the shape of ‘S.’
This curve can increase in size depending on the curve’s degree.
The degree of increase in the curve probably more in younger patients at the time of growth spurts.
The unknown conditions in Scoliosis are- Infantile Idiopathic (3 months to 3 years), Juvenile Idiopathic (from 4-9 years of age) and Adolescent Idiopathic (from 10-18 years of age).
- Congenital: In this, there is an abnormal shape of the spine in the vertebrae of the child, specifically at the time of birth.
- Neuromuscular: This type relates to another diagnosis of spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and cerebral palsy.
Scoliosis can occur in healthy adolescents and children.
The condition of Infantile Idiopathic can be seen largely in boys.
On the other hand, adolescent and juvenile idiopathic can be largely seen in girls.
Limb Length Discrepancies
Limb length discrepancies are a serious condition where there is a disproportion of length in the lower and upper arm and lower and upper legs.
Sometimes it has been seen in serious cases that length differences cause problems in the functioning of the arm.
The small variation need not require any treatment, but greater variation requires significant treatment.
Causes for leg length discrepancy
The stage of growth in children can cause a serious limb length discrepancy. It can be serious if it occurs at the time of infancy.
If there is an inflammation of joints at the time of growth, it can lead to differences in the length of the leg (Juvenile arthritis).
It can also cause the condition of limb length discrepancy:
- Ollier Disease
- Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
Previous Injury in the Bone of the Leg
An injury of a broken leg could cause limb length discrepancy if the injury healed in a short time.
There are chances of bone getting broken into pieces, and the tissue muscles can also harshly damaged, just like in the case of open fracture.
After the process of healing, the broken bones can grow faster for a few years leading the injured bone becoming much longer.
Neurologic and Arthritis conditions are the other causes of limb length discrepancies.
Growth Related Conditions
This condition gives a child a swayback appearance if the affected spine shows a curvature of the vertebrae (backbones).
Tibial torsion leads to twisting of the bones (shin bones) that are in between the ankle and the knee on the inward side.
The feet of the child get a pigeon-toed appearance as a result of this twisting.
In this condition, the thigh bone (femur) twists inward and causes the feet of the child turning inward (pigeon-toed appearance).
It can be easily detected in the children of age group 4-6 years old.
Osgood- Schlatter Disease
In this condition, there is swelling and pain in the area below the knee and is seen in growing adolescents and children.
Joint Pain Treatment
The joints are the connections between the bones and help in providing support for our movement.
Damage or injury can lead to problems in moving and involves a lot of pain.
Rheumatoid arthritis, strains, bursitis, sprains, and osteoarthritis can some of the conditions that lead to pain in the joints.
Joint pains can be mild or severe and can leave in a few weeks in the acute case and months in the chronic case.
The different alternative treatments, physical therapy, and medication can treat the problem of joint pain.