What is Vitrectomy?
The jelly-like clear fluid that fills inside the eye is known as vitreous.
Different diseases can lead the vitreous gel-filled with blood, or the gel can also get clouded or hard.
This procedure misdirects the light entering the eye that does not reach onto the retina properly.
The surgical procedure of Vitrectomy is performed for removing the vitreous from the central cavity of the eye to correct vision.
The surgery has proved advantageous for many diseases that include Retinal Detachments, Vitreous Hemorrhage, Macular Holes, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Macular Pucker.
One of the major benefits of Vitrectomy surgery is that it stabilizes and improves the vision.
Eye Disorders Treated by Vitrectomy
The eye conditions that need a Vitrectomy to include the followings:
- Some problems that are related to previous eye surgery.
- Macular Hole
- Complications of Diabetic Retinopathy like bleeding or retinal detachment.
- Infection or injury
- Retinal detachment
- Vitreous Hemorrhage (bleeding inside the eye).
- Pre-Retinal Membrane Fibrosis
Procedure for Vitrectomy
The Vitrectomy surgical procedure is performed under general or local anesthesia and is done on an outpatient basis.
The operation takes about 2-4 hours to complete.
Small incisions are made inside the eye to insert microscopic surgical tools such as a suction device, scalpels, and an internal light source.
The Vitreous is either replaced with an intraocular gas compound, silicone oil, or a saline-based solution.
This replacement helps in maintaining proper pressure in the eye and stabilizes the natural vitreous tissue.
The surgeon then uses small absorbable sutures for closing the incision site.
Antibiotic drops or injections can also be used for preventing infection.
Retinal Detachment Surgery or Laser Eye Therapy can also be performed along with Vitrectomy.
The recovery usually takes about 2-4 weeks.
A surgeon may use different techniques for vitrectomy surgery that include the followings:
The silicone oil is used in place of gas to keep the retina attached after the surgery.
The technique is beneficial when the lasting support of the retina is needed.
This technique is used along with vitrectomy to produce more support to the re-attached retina.
Either Sulfur Hexafluoride gas or Perfluropropane gas is used.
This is combined with sterile air that remains in the eye for longer periods.
To flatten a detached retina and to keep it attached while healing, gas is used, which is very helpful.
For closing the macular holes, gas injections are used.
This helps in viewing the inside of the eye through a monitor for seeing the intraocular structures.
The technique is useful when the lens or cornea is cloudy and does not give a clear view under the microscope.
The technique is used for removing the crystalline lens of the eye while performing vitrectomy surgery.
Forceps, picks, and scissors are the three microsurgical instruments that are used for manipulating intraocular structures.
Retinal Disorders Treated by Vitrectomy Surgery
- Age-related macular degeneration
- Macular Hole
- Giant retinal tears
- Eye Injuries
- Tractional, recurrent or complicated retinal detachment
- Intraocular foreign body
- Epiretinal membrane
- Dislocated lens implants or retained lens material following the cataract surgery
Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Vision Correction
This type of eye laser surgery is performed to correct the vision problems from mild to moderate conditions of myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism.
In this procedure, reshaping of the cornea is done with the help of lasers.
The laser delivers a beam of ultraviolet light on the surface of the cornea rather than beneath the cornea.
The surgery is very effective in correcting the problem of nearsightedness and eliminates the dependence on eye correcting glasses.
Double Vision (Diplopia) Correction
The simultaneous projection of two images of a single object is the problem of double vision.
The patient could either see the two images of one object all the time or sometime.
The displacement could be diagonally, horizontally or vertically.
The appearance of both vertical and horizontal lines that are doubled is referred to as oblique separation (double diagonal displacement).
There are two types of double vision- Monocular double vision which is a double vision in one eye and Binocular double vision which is a double vision in both eyes.
Causes of Double Vision
vision can be caused by the abnormal surface of the eye that distorts the incoming light.
There are several ways by which damage may happen, including the followings:
- Double vision can be due to dryness of the cornea.
- Shingles or herpes zoster ate the cornea infections that may distort the cornea.
- The corneal scars may change the cornea by creating double vision.
An eye cannot move smoothly if the eye muscles of one eye are weak.
Staring in directions that are managed by the weak muscles results in double vision.
The weak muscles may result from the following causes:
- The thyroid condition that affects the eye muscles are Graves’ disease. The disease generally results in vertical diplopia where one image of the object is on top of another.
- The autoimmune illness which obstructs the stimulation of nerve muscles in the head is known as Myasthenia Gravis. Ptosis, double vision, and drooping eyelids are the initial signs of this condition.
All the visual processes are taken inside the brain, and the nerves control the eyes that connect directly to the brain.
The condition of double vision can develop in the brain due to several causes, including:
- Migraine headaches
- Increased pressure in the brain due to bleeding, infection or trauma
- Brain tumors
The condition of cataracts is the most frequent problem of the lens, which results in double vision.
The images of both the eyes will be distorted if the cataract is there in both the eyes.
The following conditions may damage the nerves controlling the eye muscles resulting in a double vision:
- The damage in the nerve in one eye can be caused by uncontrolled diabetes that results in double vision and eye weakness.
- The condition of multiple sclerosis can affect nerves anywhere in the spinal cord or brain.
The damage can lead to double vision.
- The nerve condition which causes progressive weakness is known as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
The initial symptoms can occur in one eye leading to double vision.
Color Vision Correction
Objects can be differentiated based on frequencies (wavelength) of the light which they reflect, transmit or emit and is referred to as color vision.
The perception of colors is done by the human eye when the brain responds to the stimuli.
The stimuli are produced when an incoming light that reacts with a few types of cone photoreceptors in the eye.
The human eye can see the light source or the object in many ways.
The symptoms of color vision problems include the followings:
- A person is not able to see several shades of the color as compared to people who can see hundreds of colors.
- A person may only see fewer colors and not all.
- A person may see many colors and does not know that he or she sees differently from others.
- In rare case, a person can only see white, gray, or black.
The problem of abnormal color vision can be corrected by using glasses with colored contact lenses.
Cost of Vision Correction Surgery
The laser refractive surgeries in Iran are done at a very reasonable price.
We use the latest innovations and techniques to provide a better vision to the patients.
Iran has some of the best eye surgeons that provide for the best care and treatments for different eye problems.